Skip to content

Family satisfaction, pain, and quality-of-life in emerging adults with spina bifida: a longitudinal analysis


This study uses the Life Course Model for Spina Bifida (SB) to advance knowledge of factors associated with change in quality-of-life (QOL) among emerging adults with SB. 

Forty-eight participants (mean [SD], 22.04 [2.16] yrs) completed self-report questionnaires at two time points, 15 mos apart. Four QOL domains (physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environment) were measured using the World Health Organization QOL–BREF version. SB clinical data were collected via chart reviews. Paired t tests and reliable change indices evaluated group- and individual-level QOL change, respectively. Multiple regression analyses tested the contributions of the Life Course variables in explaining change in QOL over time.

No significant group-level differences in the QOL domains were found between time 1 and time 2, but there was substantial individual variation in QOL over time. SB severity was related to a decline only in psychological QOL (B = −0.68, P = 0.02). Increased pain was associated with reduced physical health (B = −0.29, P = 0.049) and psychological (B = −0.29, P = 0.03) QOL at time 2, whereas greater family satisfaction was related to improved QOL in several domains.


Bellin, M.H., Dicianno, B.E., Osteen, P.J., Dosa, N., Aparicio, E., Braun, P., Zabel, T.A. (2013). Family Satisfaction, Pain, and Quality-of-Life in Emerging Adults with Spina Bifida: A Longitudinal Analysis. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 92(8), pp. 641-655. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e31829b4bc1

Go to journal article

Share this article:


Last Updated: 12/12/23