The impact of early postnatal lead exposure measured at age 4 on children's IQ and academic achievement at and 11 years of age was examined. The sample consisted of 278 inner-city, primarily African American children who were polydrug exposed prenatally. Regression analyses indicated a linear effect of lead exposure on outcomes and no moderating effects of polydrug exposure. An IQ loss of about 4.1–5.4 Full Scale IQ points was estimated for each 10 µg/dL increase in blood lead level at ages 4, 9, and 11 years as a function of blood lead level at age 4.
The biopsychosocial perspective is a foundation of social work theory and practice. Recent research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to this perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces shape neurobiology.
In this paper, we propose a hypothetical causal model that argues for the role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal coping. Positive reappraisal is a critical component of meaning-based coping that enables individuals to adapt successfully to stressful life events.