Cognitive outcomes of preschool children with prenatal cocaine exposure
Because of methodological limitations, the results of the few prospective studies assessing long-term cognitive effects of prenatal cocaine exposure are inconsistent. Study assesses effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of caregiving environment on 4-year cognitive outcomes. Study design is a longitudinal, prospective, masked comparison cohort study from birth (September 1994-June 1996) to 4 years, which took place in a research laboratory of a US urban county teaching hospital. A total of 415 consecutively enrolled infants identified from a high-risk population screened for drug use through clinical interview, urine, and meconium screens. Ninety-three percent retention for surviving participants at 4 years of age resulted in 376 children (190 cocaine-exposed and 186 nonexposed).
Singer, L.T., Minnes, S., Short, E., Arendt, R., Farkas, K., Lewis, B., Klein, N., Russ, S., Min, M.O., Kirchner, H.L. (2004). Cognitive Outcomes of Preschool Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure. JAMA, 291(20), pp. 2448-2456. doi:10.1001/jama.291.20.2448