Publications

Atchley, R., Klee, D., Oken, B. (2017). EEG Frequency Changes Prior to Making Errors in an Easy Stroop Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2017. Read More...

  • Mind-wandering is a form of off-task attention that has been associated with negative affect and rumination. The goal of this study was to assess potential electroencephalographic markers of task-unrelated thought, or mind-wandering state, as related to error rates during a specialized cognitive task. The authors used EEG to record frontal frequency band activity while participants completed a Stroop task that was modified to induce boredom, task-unrelated thought, and therefore mind-wandering.

Atchley, R., Ellingson, R., Klee, D., Memmott, T., and Oken, B. (2017). A cognitive stressor for event-related potential studies: The Portland Arithmetic Stress Task. Stress, 20(3), 277-284. Read More...

  • In this experiment, the authors developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.

Atchley, R., Klee, D., Oken, B. (2017). Set shifting reaction-time improves following meditation or simple breathcounting in meditators and meditation-naïve participants: Data from naturalistic, ecological momentary-assessment devices. Mindfulness & Compassion, 2(2), 82-85. Read More...

  • A comparison is made between the performance of meditators and controls in a letter-number task-switching test. Data were recorded over a five-day period using a previously developed ecological momentary assessment paradigm. Participants consisted of naïve, novice, and experienced meditators who completed a task-switching reaction time (RT) task before and after 20-minute breath-counting sessions. RTs decreased each day, as expected, and post-meditation/breath-counting RTs were consistently faster than pre-meditation/breath-counting RTs. These results suggest a meditation effect separate from a learning effect.

Hourston, S., and Atchley, R. (2017). Autism and mind-body therapies: A systematic review. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 23(5), 331-339. Read More...

  • Mind-body therapies are often used by people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there has been little examination into which types of mind-body therapies have been investigated for people with ASD and for what purposes. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the existing evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD, particularly to determine the types of mind-body therapies used and the outcomes that are targeted. The evidence for mind-body therapies for people with ASD is limited and would benefit from larger randomized controlled trials.

Ribeiro, L., Atchley, R., Oken, B. (2017). Adherence to practice of mindfulness in novice meditators: Practices chosen, amount of time practiced, and long-term effects following a mindfulness-based intervention. Mindfulness. Read More...

  • In this study, the authors objectively tracked the duration, frequency, and the preferred practices chosen by novice mindfulness practitioners following a mindfulness meditation (MM) intervention. A sample of 55 mildly stressed participants, aged 50 to 80 years old, underwent an individual six-week MM intervention and had their guided meditation home practice electronically recorded during the intervention and the eight-week post-intervention period. Results evidenced a high adherence to practice and showed significant alterations in self-reported measures over time, suggesting improvements in stress and overall quality of life. Changes in the self-report measures did not correlate with MM practice time, which suggests that other psychological phenomena, including quality of meditation practice, influence these outcomes.

Chamine, I., Atchley, R. (2017). Hypnosis intervention effects on sleep outcomes: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. Accepted September 2017.

  • Sleep improvement is a promising target for preventing and modifying many health problems. Hypnosis is considered a cost-effective and safe intervention with reported benefits for multiple health conditions. There is a growing body of research assessing the efficacy of hypnosis for various health conditions in which sleep was targeted as a primary or secondary outcome. This review aimed to investigate the effects of hypnosis interventions on sleep, to describe the hypnotic procedures, and to evaluate potential adverse effects of hypnosis. The authors concluded hypnosis for sleep problems is a promising treatment that merits further investigation. Available evidence suggests low incidence of adverse events. The current evidence is limited because of few studies assessing populations with sleep complaints, small samples, and low methodological quality of the included studies. This review points out some beneficial hypnosis effects on sleep but more high-quality studies on this topic are warranted.

Bettmann, J. E., Scheinfeld, D., Prince, K., Garland, E. L., & Ovrom, K. V. (In press). Changes in psychiatric symptoms and psychological processes among veterans participating in a therapeutic adventure program. Psychological Services.

  • When veterans need effective mental health treatment, many are reluctant to engage in traditional treatment modalities because of stigma. Therapeutic adventure shows promise as a way to engage veterans and enact positive changes in functioning. This study examined changes in mental health symptoms and related psychological processes over the course of a six-day Outward Bound for Veterans program and at a one-month follow-up. Results showed that, from pre- to post-program, participants reported significant improvement in life purpose satisfaction and self-confidence during stressful situations. Further, from pre-program to one-month post-program, veterans reported increased psychological mindedness, increased engagement to promote personal growth, decreased mental health symptomology, decreased emotional suppression, and increase in positive attitude toward seeking professional psychological help.

Bettmann, J. E.,Taylor, M. J., Gamarra, E., Wright, R. A., & Mai, T. (In press). Resettlement experiences of children who entered the United States as refugees. Social Development Issues.

  • This study sought to answer the question: what are the core issues confronting latency-aged children with a refugee background as they resettle in the United States? Focus group and individual interviews were conducted with children with refugee backgrounds, their parents, refugee service providers, and community stakeholders. Results suggest that multiple stressors impact children within their families, among their peers, and in social interactions. Stressors are both material differences of adjusting to a different society and emotional upheavals caused by loss and forced rapid change. The findings suggest that communities, social agencies, and schools should devote additional time and resources to facilitate transition for children and their parents. Specific recommendations for agency responses are made.

Bettmann, J. E., Tucker, A., Behrens, E., & Vanderloo, M. (2017). Changes in late adolescents and young adults’ attachment, separation, and mental health during wilderness therapy. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26 (2), 511-522. Read More...

  • The study explored changes in young adults’ mental health, attachment, and separation from parents during a seven-week wilderness therapy program. Utilizing a longitudinal one-group design, the study examined outcomes of 157 young adults in one wilderness therapy program. From pre- to post-treatment, participants reported significant improvement in mental health symptoms and interpersonal relationships, as well as increases in the belief that others can be depended upon. Participants reported less resentment and anger toward mothers from pre- to post-treatment, but an increase in their need for approval from fathers. The study details a link between young adults’ attachment, independence from parents, and improvement in mental health, suggesting that treatment which targets these links may provide more effective intervention.

Van Hala, S., Frost, C. J., Gren, L. H., Jaggi, R., Pohl, S., Kiraly, B., & Cochella, S.  Development and Validation of the Foundational Healthcare Leadership Self-Assessment (FHLS)©.  Academic Medicine. Accepted September 2017.

  • The article discusses the development of a tool to assess foundational leadership skills for family medicine residents. The process of validating this quantitative tool is explored.

Metos, J., Broussard, T., Gren, L. H., O’Toole, K., Mokatari, T., & Frost, C. J. (2017) Adolescent Girls’ Reactions to Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Tools and Insight on Life Style Habits. Health Education Journal, 77(1),85-95. Read More...

  • The objective of this mixed methods study was to understand adolescent girls’ experiences using practical diet and physical activity measurement tools, and to explore the food and physical activity settings that influence their lifestyle habits. This study demonstrates the efficacy and willingness of girls to utilize food diaries and activity trackers. Results confirm poor dietary intake and physical activity in this population, and describe influences on lifestyle behaviors unique to adolescent girls.

Kamimura, A., Pye, M., Sin, K., Nourian, M., Assanik, N., Stoddard, M., & Frost, C. J.  Health and well-being of women migrating from Muslim-dominated countries to the United States.  Women’s Health Issues. Accepted September 2017.

  • The purpose of this study was to examine the health and well-being of women migrating from predominantly Muslim countries to the U.S. Women from predominantly Muslim countries completed a paper survey on the following topics from June to December in 2016: depression; physical functioning; self-reported general health; experiences with health care; and demographic characteristics. There were several women’s health-related issues: low rates for mammography and pap smear screening, and preference for female physicians and/or physicians from the same culture. Only one-third of the participants had received a physical exam in the past year, and having done so was related to higher levels of depression and worse physical functioning. The participants who had not lived in a refugee camp reported higher levels of depression than those who were.

Fukushima, A. I. (2017). Human Trafficking. In Gender: War. Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference. ISBN: 0028663306

  • Human trafficking encompasses a wide range of experiences including labor exploitation, sexual exploitation, slavery, and slave-like practice. The first section of this chapter defines human trafficking and explains the prostitution and forced labor debates to foster an understanding of human trafficking during war. The second section focuses on structural power relations, sexuality, and the nation and discusses sexual slavery during war. The third section complicates notions of victims having no agency. Next, the chapter examines the present situation in terms of trafficking and the "war on terror." Because trafficking occurs not just during wartime, there is also discussion of trafficking during militarized peace. Central to the chapter’s discussion is the last section on transitional justice and reconciliation and how judicial and nonjudicial mechanisms are implemented to address wartime crimes.

Garland, E. L., Baker, A. K., Larsen, P., Riquino, M. R., Priddy, S. E., Thomas, E. A., Hanley, A. W., Galbraith, P., Wanner, N., & Nakamura, Y. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32(10), 1106-1113. Read More...

  • Medical management of acute pain among hospital inpatients may be enhanced by mind-body interventions. The authors hypothesized that a single, scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain, or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery, would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to a psychoeducation pain coping control. It was also hypothesized that mindfulness and suggestion would produce significant improvements in secondary outcomes. The study found that brief, single-session mind-body interventions delivered by hospital social workers led to clinically significant improvements in pain and related outcomes, suggesting that such interventions may be useful adjuncts to medical pain management.

Garland, E. L. & Howard, M. O. (In press). Enhancing natural reward responsiveness among opioid users predicts relief from chronic pain: An analysis of EEG data from a trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research.

  • This paper examines how increases in electrocortical indices of natural reward processing following treatment with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) predict chronic pain relief.

Garland, E. L., Howard, M. O., Zubieta, J., & Froeliger, B. (2017). Restructuring hedonic dysregulation in chronic pain and prescription opioid misuse: Effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement on responsiveness to drug cues and natural rewards. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 86(2), 111-112. Read More...

  • The allostatic model posits that chronic drug use induces hedonic homeostatic dysregulation, in which motivation to obtain natural rewards (e.g., eating, copulation, affiliation) is reorganized around seeking drug-induced reward to alleviate dysphoria. The downward shift in salience of natural reward relative to drug reward may represent a crucial tipping point leading to the loss of control over drug use that is characteristic of addiction. Heightened responsiveness to drug reward coupled with decreased responsiveness to natural reward has been observed in opioid-dependent individuals, predicts opioid consumption, and may drive prescription opioid misuse and addiction. Therapies that restructure reward responsiveness from valuation of drug reward to valuation of natural reward may be effective means of treating opioid misuse.

Garland, E. L., Bryan, C. J., Nakamura, Y., Froeliger, B., & Howard, M. O. (2017). Deficits in autonomic indices of emotion regulation and reward processing associated with prescription opioid use and misuse. Psychopharmacology, 234(4), 621-629. Read More...

  • Rationale prescription opioid misuse and high-dose opioid use may result in allostatic dysregulation of hedonic brain circuitry, leading to reduced emotion regulation capacity. In particular, opioid misuse may blunt the ability to experience and upregulate positive affect from natural rewards. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between opioid use/misuse and autonomic indices of emotion regulation capability in a sample of chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioid pharmacotherapy.

Garland, E. L., Baker, A. K., & Howard, M. O. (In press). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement reduces opioid attentional bias among prescription opioid-treated chronic pain patients. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 8 (4), 493-509. Read More...

  • Opioid-misusing chronic pain patients who are treated with opioid analgesics selectively attend to opioid-related cues. This opioid attentional bias (AB) is a maladaptive cognitive process that can lead to automatic, habitual misuse of opioids. The aim of this secondary data analysis was to explore the effects of a novel social work intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), on post-treatment opioid AB among a subgroup of chronic pain patients who exhibit attentional reactivity to opioid cues prior to treatment. MORE is a group-therapy program that integrates training in mindfulness, reappraisal, and savoring techniques.

Garland, E. L., Bryan, C. J., Finan, P., Thomas, E. A., Priddy, S. E., Riquino, M., & Howard, M. O. (2017). Pain, hedonic regulation, and opioid misuse: Modulation of momentary experience by Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement in opioid-treated chronic pain patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 173, S65-S72. Read More...

  • Given the risk of opioid misuse among chronic pain patients being treated with long-term opioid pharmacotherapy, non-pharmacological treatments are needed. Further, in light of hedonic deficits in this population, therapies that enhance positive affect may be useful. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) intervention on ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of pain and positive affective experience, and to determine if changes in pain, affect, and their interaction were associated with opioid misuse at post-treatment

Garland, E. L., Baker, A. K., Riquino, M. R., & Priddy, S. E. (2017). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: A review of its theoretical underpinnings, clinical application, and biobehavioral mechanisms. In Ivtzan, I. (ed.), Handbook of Mindfulness-Based Programs: Every Established Intervention, from Medicine to Education. Routledge Press.

  • This book chapter reviews the history, theoretical underpinnings, and empirical support for the Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) intervention.

Garland E. L., Bell S., Atchley R., & Froeliger B. (In press). Emotion dysregulation in addiction. In S. Crowell & T. Beauchaine (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Emotion Dysregulation, New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Given the high prevalence and public health impact of opioids and cigarettes, this chapter synthesizes evidence from extant studies of these drugs leading toward an integrative model of emotion dysregulation in addiction. This is a model that yields tractable targets for future research and treatment efforts.

Garland, E. L., Hanley, A. W., Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2017). Testing the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory: Evidence for mindful positive emotion regulation from a reanalysis of longitudinal data. PLOS One, 12(12).Read More...

  • The Mindfulness to Meaning Theory (MMT) provides a detailed process model of mindful positive emotion regulation. Results suggest that the mechanisms of change identified by the MMT form an iterative chain that promotes long-term increases in positive affectivity. Though these mechanisms may reflect common therapeutic factors that cut across mindfulness-based and cognitive-behavioral interventions, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) specifically boosts the MMT cycle by producing significantly greater increases in decentering and broadened awareness than cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), providing support for the foundational assumption in the MMT that mindfulness training may be a key means of stimulating downstream positive psychological processes.

Garland, E. L., Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Howard, M. O. (2017). Biobehavioral mechanisms of mindfulness as a treatment for chronic stress: An RDoC perspective. Chronic Stress, 1, 1-14. Read More...

  • Mindfulness-based interventions have been heralded as promising means of alleviating chronic stress; however, how mindfulness-based interventions modulate the specific mechanisms underpinning chronic stress as operationalized by the National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria (RDoC) remains unclear. A review of the extant body of scientific evidence suggests that the practice of mindfulness enhances a range of biobehavioral factors implicated in adaptive stress coping and induces self-referential plasticity, leading to the ability to find meaning in adversity.

Garland, E. L., Baker, A. K., Larsen, P., Riquino, M. R., Priddy, S. E., Thomas, E. A., Hanley, A. W., Galbraith, P., Wanner, N., & Nakamura, Y. (2017). Randomized controlled trial of brief mindfulness training and hypnotic suggestion for acute pain relief in the hospital setting. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 32(10), 1106-1113. Read More...

  • This study examined whether a scripted session of mindfulness training focused on acceptance of pain, or hypnotic suggestion focused on changing pain sensations through imagery, would significantly reduce acute pain intensity and unpleasantness compared to a psychoeducation pain coping control. Results indicate that brief, single-session mind-body interventions delivered by hospital social workers led to clinically significant improvements in pain and related outcomes, suggesting that such interventions may be useful adjuncts to medical pain management.

Li, W., Garland, E. L., McGovern, P., O’Brien, J. E., Tronnier, C., & Howard, M. O. (2017). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for internet gaming disorder in U.S. adults: A stage I randomized controlled trial. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 31, 393-402. Read More...

  • Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and associated adverse consequences. However, very few evidence-based interventions have been evaluated for IGD. This study evaluated Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) as a treatment for IGD. Thirty adults with IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors were randomized to eight weeks of group-based MORE or eight weeks of a support group (SG) control condition. MORE participants had significantly greater reductions in the number of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–5 IGD criteria they met, craving for video gaming, and maladaptive cognitions associated with gaming than SG participants. Therapeutic benefits were maintained at three-month follow-up. MORE is a promising treatment approach for IGD.

Li, W., Garland, E. L., O’Brien, J. E., Tronnier, C., McGovern, P., Howard, M. O. (2017). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for video game addiction in emerging adults: Preliminary findings from case reports. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. First published online: 04 May 2017. Read More...

  • Video game addiction is increasingly prevalent in emerging adults and is associated with physical and psychosocial impairments. However, few evidence-based treatments for video game addiction have been identified or evaluated. Mindfulness treatment is effective for substance use disorders and behavioral addictions, and may be a promising intervention for video game addiction. This report presents theoretical support for mindfulness treatment of video game addiction, describes an adapted mindfulness treatment (i.e., Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE)) for video game addiction, and presents case vignettes that describe preliminary effects of MORE in reducing video game addiction and increasing positive coping.

Geschwind, N., Martinmäki, S., & Garland, E. L. (In press). Facilitation of positive emotions through mindfulness-based therapy. In Gruber, J. (ed.), Positive Emotions and Psychopathology. Oxford University Press.

  • This book chapter reviews theory and empirical evidence in support of the notion that mindfulness-based therapy can facilitate positive emotions in individuals with mood disorders.

Li, W. Howard, M. O., Garland, E. L., McGovern, P., & Lazar, M. (2017). Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse: A systematic and meta-analysis. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 75, 62-96. Read More...

  • High rates of relapse following substance misuse treatment highlight an urgent need for effective therapies. This systematic review examined methodological characteristics and substantive findings of studies evaluating mindfulness treatments for substance misuse published by 2015. Meta-analytic results revealed significant small-to-large effects of mindfulness treatments in reducing the frequency and severity of substance misuse, intensity of craving for psychoactive substances, and severity of stress. Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse is a promising intervention for substance misuse, although more research is needed examining the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions exert their effects and the effectiveness of mindfulness treatments in diverse treatment settings.

Baucom, R. W., Georgiou, P., Bryan, C. J., Garland, E. L., Leifker, F., May, A., Wong, A., & Narayanan, S. S. (2017). The promise and the challenge of technology-facilitated methods for assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard Personnel. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(4), 361. Read More...

  • Suicide was the 10th leading cause of death for Americans in 2015 and rates have been steadily climbing over the last 25 years. Rates are particularly high amongst U.S. military personnel. Suicide prevention efforts in the military are significantly hampered by the lack of: (1) assessment tools for measuring baseline risk; and (2) methods to detect periods of particularly heightened risk. Two specific barriers to assessing suicide risk in military personnel that call for innovation are: (1) the geographic dispersion of military personnel from healthcare settings, particularly amongst components like the Reserves; and (2) professional and social disincentives to acknowledging psychological distress. The primary aim of this paper is to describe recent technological developments that could contribute to risk assessment tools that are not subject to the limitations mentioned above.

Froeliger, B., Mathew, A., McConnell, P., Eichberg, C., Saladin, M. E., Carpenter, M. J., & Garland, E. L. (2017). Restructuring reward mechanisms in nicotine addiction: A pilot fMRI study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for cigarette smokers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017, Article ID 7018014, 10 pages. Read More...

  • The primary goal of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), on frontostriatal reward processes among cigarette smokers. Healthy adult smokers provided informed consent to participate in a 10-week study testing MORE versus a comparison group (CG). As compared to the CG, MORE significantly reduced smoking and increased positive affect. MORE participants evidenced decreased Cue Reactivity (CR)-BOLD response in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC), and increased positive Emotional Regulation (ER)-BOLD in VS and vPFC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that MORE may facilitate the restructuring of reward processes and play a role in treating the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction.

Gezinski, L. B., Karandikar, S., Huber, S., & Levitt, A. (In press). Commissioning parents' experiences with international surrogacy: A qualitative study. Health & Social Work.

  • Commissioning parents (CPs) were primarily motivated to undertake international surrogacy due to health complications and legal restrictions in their home country. CPs emphasized strenuous relationships in both the destination country and at home, and they worried about disclosure to family and friends. The mental health and social needs of CPs were neglected throughout and should be incorporated in future interventions to address stigmatization.

Gezinski, L. B., Karandikar, S., Levitt, A., & Ghaffarian, R. (2017). "We want to offer you peace of mind": Marketing of transnational commercial surrogacy services to intended parents. Health Marketing Quarterly, 34 (4), 302-314.Read More...

  • The purpose of this research study was to conduct a content analysis of commercial surrogacy websites to explore how surrogacy is marketed to intended parents. Websites depicted surrogacy as a solution to a problem, privileged genetic parenthood, ignored the potential for exploitation, dismissed surrogates’ capacity to bond with the fetuses they carry, emphasized that surrogacy arrangements are mutually beneficial, ignored structural inequalities, and depicted surrogates as conforming to strict gender roles. These framings introduce vulnerabilities to both intended parents and surrogate mothers.

Huber, S., Karandikar, S., & Gezinski, L. B. (2017). Exploring Indian surrogates’ perceptions of the ban on international surrogacy. Affilia:Journal of Women and Social Work. First published online: 3 October 2017. Read More...

  • This study examined surrogate women’s perceptions of the ban on international surrogacy in India. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 surrogate women at a fertility clinic in Gujarat, India. Three themes emerged: (1) perceptions of the ban; (2) impact of the ban on surrogates, international couples, and fertility clinics; and (3) long-term economic results of surrogacy. Women stated that international surrogacy should not be banned, because it provides substantial economic benefits. The ban on surrogacy seems to be the Indian government’s response to stopping exploitative practices involved in surrogacy. However, there are no alternate solutions for economic independence and livelihood options for women who either were surrogate mothers or wanted to be in the future.

Karandikar, S., & Gezinski, L. B. (2017). Exploring the daily challenges of female sex workers to negotiate safe sex in Mumbai, India: What can social workers do? In M. Henrickson, D. Chipanta, V. Lynch, H. Muñoz Sanchez, V. Nadkarni, T. Semigina, & V. Sewpaul (Eds.), Getting to zero: Global social work responds to HIV. Geneva: UNAIDS and IASSW. Read More...

  • Sex workers are stigmatized in the context of HIV and blamed as being so-called vectors of the infection. In this chapter, the authors present the findings of a qualitative study of 48 female sex workers from a red-light area in India.  Two themes are discussed: 1) health-related challenges of sex workers; and 2) challenges in HIV risk management.  Sex workers described their poor health and poor living conditions, as well as safety concerns.  They described acts of violence perpetrated against them in relation to their efforts to negotiate safe sex.  HIV prevention was challenging, as sex workers had to confront stringent male attitudes against condom use.  This chapter highlights the need for prevention efforts that counter stereotypes of sex workers, decrease stigmatization, and increase gender equity.  It is imperative that intimate partners, clients, and pimps are included in these interventions for greater effectiveness.

Karandikar, S., Gezinski, L. B., & Huber, S. (2017). Exploring the physical and emotional stress of a surrogate pregnancy among transnational Indian surrogates. International Social Work, 60(6), 1433-1442. First published online: 12 June 2017. Read More...

  • The purpose of this study was to explore surrogate women’s experiences of stress during the surrogacy process in India. The authors interviewed 15 women who had been a surrogate for an international couple at least once. Three critical themes emerged related to stress regarding: (1) physical health, (2) psychological well-being, and (3) stability of surrogates’ families and children. Social workers must minimize the physical and emotional effects of surrogacy through counseling and psychosocial support.

Gezinski, L. B. (2017). Utah Statewide Domestic Violence Needs Assessment 2016-2017. Salt Lake City, UT: College of Social Work, University of Utah.

  • This report describes findings from a statewide domestic violence needs assessment conducted with 102 survivors and service providers across the state of Utah. Primary themes included: (1) shortages of affordable housing; (2) insufficient law enforcement and legal system response; (3) lack of access to mental health and substance use disorder services; (4) unprepared religious leaders; and (5) lack of child care services. Specific needs of immigrant, Native American, and LGBTQ+ communities in Utah are also presented.

Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Garland, E. L. (2017). The mindful personality II: Exploring the metatraits from a cybernetic perspective. Mindfulness. Read More...

  • Relationships between dispositional mindfulness and the personality metatraits, stability and plasticity, remain unexplored despite continued efforts to more accurately characterize associations between dispositional mindfulness and the Big Five personality factors. Results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is principally associated with stability, or the capacity to sustain goal-directed efforts. Results further suggest a positive relationship between dispositional mindfulness and plasticity, or the tendency to explore the unknown.

Hanley, A. W., Derringer, S. A., & Hanley, R. T. (2017). Dispositional mindfulness may be associated with deeper connections with nature. Ecopsychology 9(4), 225-231. Read More...

  • This study examined associations between dispositional mindfulness, decentering, and the tendency to identify the self with nature. Results indicated that dispositional mindfulness was positively associated with nature identity. Furthermore, the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and nature identity was mediated by decentering.

Hanley, A. W., & Garland, E. L. (2017). The mindful personality: A meta-analysis from a cybernetic perspective. Mindfulness, 8(6), 1456-1470. Read More...

  • Dispositional mindfulness (DM), or the tendency to attend to present moment experience, may have important implications for the structure of human personality. However, relationships between DM and the Big Five Model of Personality (BF) have not been definitively established. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to extend previous investigations of the relationship between DM and the BF. Results indicate that neuroticism evidenced the strongest negative relationship with DM, and conscientiousness evidenced the strongest positive relationship with DM. This suggests the mindful personality may be characterized principally by emotional stability and conscientious self-regulation—potentially reflective of an inclination toward the personality metatrait stability.

Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Garland, E. L. (2017). Self-interest may not be entirely in the interest of the self: Association between selflessness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 166-171. Read More...

  • The association between mindfulness and selflessness is firmly grounded in classical Indo-Sino-Tibetan contemplative traditions, but has received limited empirical attention from Western researchers. This study explored the relationships between dispositional mindfulness, conceptualization of the self existing on a continuum from self-centered to selfless, and psychological well-being. Results indicate a positive relationship between selflessness, dispositional mindfulness, and psychological well-being, such that construing the self as interdependent and interconnected with a broader social, natural, and cosmic context (i.e., greater selflessness) is linked with greater psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness.

Hanley, A. W., & Garland, E. L. (2017).  Clarity of mind: Associations between dispositional mindfulness, self-concept clarity and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 334-339. Read More...

  • Clear self-concept beliefs are thought to be fundamental for well-being; and, mindfulness is believed to be intimately linked with beliefs about the self and well-being. Self-concept clarity suggests greater self-knowledge, which in turn may encourage more consistent involvement with fulfilling pursuits and relationships. Results from this study indicate that self-concept clarity mediates the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Thus, dispositional mindfulness may encourage greater clarity with respect to beliefs about the self, which in turn may be associated with greater psychological well-being.

Hanley, A. W., Mehling, W. E., & Garland, E. L. (2017).  Holding the body in mind: Interoceptive awareness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 99, 13-20. Read More...

  • Correlational results from this study indicated that the elements of interoceptive awareness and the facets of dispositional mindfulness form two associative clusters. Canonical correlation analysis supported this finding, revealing that two primary networks of association exist between interoceptive awareness and dispositional mindfulness, a regulatory awareness cluster and an equanimous behavior cluster.

Hoy-Ellis, C. P., & Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. (2017). Depression among transgender older adults: General and minority stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 59(3-4), 295-305. Read More...

  • This study aimed to (a) examine the direct and indirect effects of internalized heterosexism, disclosure of gender identity, and perceived general stress in association with depression among transgender older adults; and (b) to assess the relative contribution of each relationship. Disclosure of gender identity had no significant direct or indirect effects on either perceived general stress or depression. Internalized heterosexism did not have a direct effect on depression, but did have a significant indirect effect through perceived general stress. Finally, perceived general stress had an additional significant direct effect on depression, over and above internalized heterosexism. Total effect sizes appear to be considerable with standardized betas greater than 5.0. Perceived general stress and internalized heterosexism independently and cumulatively have significant direct and indirect effects on depression among transgender older adults. Implications for depression among transgender older adults and the role of community psychology are discussed.

Hoy-Ellis, C. P., Shiu, C-S., Sullivan, K., Kim, H-J., Sturges, A. M., &. Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. (2017). Prior military service, identity stigma, and mental health among transgender older adults. The Gerontologist, 57(1), S63-S71 Read More...

  • Converging evidence from large community-based samples, internet studies, and Veterans Health Administration data suggest that transgender adults have high rates of U.S. military service. However, little is known about the role of prior military service in their mental health later in life, particularly in relation to identity stigma. This article examines relationships between prior military service, identity stigma, and mental health among transgender older adults. Identity stigma was significantly related with higher depressive symptomatology and lower psychological health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Having a history of prior military service significantly predicted lower depressive symptomatology and higher psychological HRQOL. The relationships between psychological HRQOL, identity stigma, and prior military service were largely explained by depressive symptomatology. Prior military service significantly attenuated the relationship between identity stigma and depressive symptomatology. By identifying the role of military service in the mental health of transgender older adults, this study provides insights into how prior military service may contribute to resilience and positive mental health outcomes.

Hoy-Ellis, C. P., (2017). Chapter 8: Older adults. In K. L. Eckstrand & J. Potter (Eds.), Trauma, resilience, and health promotion for LGBT patients: What every healthcare provider should know (pp. 89-104). New York: Springer. ISBN: 9783319545073

  • Written for healthcare providers in any setting, this chapter presents an overview of issues and challenges that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults experience and how this affects their access to and experience of healthcare. The chapter frames the lived experiences of today’s LGBT older adults, tracing epochal events and accompanying shifts in public discourses. Drawing on the Minority Stress Model and recent developments in scholarship, the chapter shows how larger social, political, legal, and medical structures and institutions centered discrimination and victimization, fostering insidious trauma and disparities in physical, mental, and social functioning among LGBT older adults. The LGBT Health Equity Promotion Model is presented as a conceptual framework, along with strategies and resources for healthcare providers seeking to support resilience when working with LGBT individuals. A case study for practice application is included.

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., & Hoy-Ellis, C. P. (2017). LGBT older adults emerging from the shadows: Health disparities and risks and resources. In J. Wilmoth & M. Silverstein (Eds.), Later-life social support and service provision in diverse and vulnerable populations (pp. 95-117). New York: Routledge. ISBN: 9780415788311

  • Based on a health equity perspective, this chapter draws from the extant literature and findings from Caring and Aging with Pride to examine health disparities among LGBT older adults and explore how structural and environmental risks intersect with personal and social resources and health behaviors. It also highlights the importance of understanding age group differences as they relate to the risks and opportunities experienced by LGBT older adults. Finally, the next steps for policy, services, and research are outlined to address the growing needs of LGBT older adults and their families. By examining the health and well-being and the risks and resilience of LGBT older adults, this chapter addresses the increasing heterogeneity in our growing, older adult population.

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Hoy-Ellis, C. P., & Brown, M. (2017). Addressing behavioral cancer risks from a LGBT health equity perspective. In U. Boehmer & R. Elk (Eds.), Cancer and the LGBT community: Unique perspectives from risk to survivorship (pp. 37-62). New York: Springer. ISBN 9783319150574

  • Accounting for individual, community, and societal factors, as well as historical context and life-course events, this chapter utilizes a Health Equity model to consider behavioral risks and identify social determinants that may influence cancer risks in LGBT populations. Based on data from available research, we provide estimates of the prevalence of behavioral risks in LGBT communities, including excessive drinking and substance abuse, obesity, poor nutrition and diet, and physical inactivity. Both upstream and downstream factors that may elevate such behavioral risks for cancer among LGBT populations, including those unique to particular subgroups, are discussed. Examples of innovative programs and interventions designed for LGBT communities to target cancer-related behavioral risks are briefly described. The chapter concludes with research, practice, and policy recommendations that are needed to promote health equity and reduce the disparate cancer burden in LGBT communities.

Farrell, T., Supiano, K., Wong, B., Luptak, M., Luther, B., Andersen, T. C., Wilson, R., Wilby, F., Yang, R., Pepper, G., Brunker, C. Individual versus interprofessional team performance in formulating care transition plans: A randomised study of trainees from five professional groups. Journal of Interprofessional Care. First published online: 28 November 2017. Read More...

  • Health professions trainees’ performance in teams is rarely evaluated, but increasingly important as the healthcare delivery systems in which they will practice move toward team-based care. Effective management of care transitions is an important aspect of interprofessional teamwork. This mixed-methods study used a crossover design to randomise health professions trainees to work as individuals and as teams to formulate written care transition plans. Experienced external raters assessed the quality of the written care transition plans as well as both the quality of team process and overall team performance. Written care transition plan quality did not vary between individuals and teams. The quality of team process did not correlate with the quality of the team-generated written care transition plans. However, there was a significant correlation between the quality of team process and overall team performance. Teams with highly engaged recorders, those performing an internal team debrief, had higher-quality care transition plans. These results suggest that high-quality interprofessional care transition plans may require advance instruction as well as teamwork in finalising plans.

Ned, J. D. & Frost, C. J., eds. (2017). Contemporary Issues in Child Welfare: American Indian and Canadian Aboriginal Contexts. Canada:  J. Charlton Publishing, Ltd. ISBN: 9781926476155

  • American Indian and First Nations peoples have had their lives disrupted by governmental structures in the U.S. and Canada. This book highlights the impact of child welfare policies on the lives of these groups and provides a context for considering how to work with American Indian and First Nations families and children in the 21st  Chapter authors are American Indian and/or First Nations scholars in this field.

Sivakumar, W., Jensen, M., Martinez, J., Tanana, M. J., Duncan, N., Hoesch, R., Riva-Cambrin, J. & Ansari, S. (In Press). Intravenous acetaminophen for postoperative supratentorial craniotomy pain: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.  Journal of Neurosurgery.

  • This study randomized post-operative neurosurgery patients into a placebo and treatment group to examine the effect of IV administered acetaminophen on the trajectories of self-reported pain after the procedures.  The current standard of care is to administer opioid-based drugs to patients experiencing pain after neurosurgery, however, the risks of these drugs are becoming more apparent each year.  This study attempted to see if using less-risky drugs, administered in a novel way, might reduce pain symptoms. The study found that patients’ self-reported pain dropped more rapidly after surgery in the treatment group, lending support to this as a promising new treatment for post-operative pain.  

Zamora, E., Yi, J., Akter, J., Kim, J., Warner, E. L., & Kirchhoff, A. (2017). ‘Having cancer was awful but also something good came out’: Post-traumatic growth among adult survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 28, 21-27. Read More...

  • The cancer experience may cultivate positive psychological changes that can help reduce distress for adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer during the course of life. The aim of this study was to examine the positive impact of cancer in adult survivors utilizing posttraumatic growth as a guiding framework. Semi-structured phone interviews were analyzed using deductive analysis. The primary five themes that emerged were similar to Tedeschi and Calhoun's (1996) themes for measuring positive effects, and were used to frame the results. The primary themes, along with uniquely identified sub-themes, are: personal strength (psychological confidence, emotional maturity), improved relationship with others (family intimacy, empathy for others), new possibilities (having passion work with cancer), appreciation for life (reprioritization), and spiritual development (strengthened spiritual beliefs, participating in religious rituals and activities).

Yi, J., Kim, J. H., & Tian, T. (2017). Social aspects of resilience in pediatric cancer survivorship. In Nelson, L., & Walker, L., (Eds.). Flourishing in Emerging Adulthood: Positive Development During the Third Decade of Life. Oxford Volume. ISBN: 9780190260637

  • Emerging adults are characterized by five major traits reviewed in this chapter: 1) being engaged in exploring their identity; 2) being self-focused; 3) feeling in between adolescence and adulthood; 4) experiencing instability; and 5) having optimism/perceiving possibilities. By examining the interactions between these characteristics and health challenges, the authors aimed to understand how emerging adults facing health challenges can develop into adulthood in ways indicative of flourishing.

Kim, M. A., Yi, J., Prince K., Nagelhout, E., & Wu, Y. P. (2017). The effects of individual- and network-level factors on discussion of cancer experiences: Survivors of childhood cancer in Korea. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Read More... 

  • This study aimed to identify young adult Korean cancer survivors' individual-level (psychological distress, stigma, sociodemographic variables, and cancer-related variables) and network-level (relationship type, social support type) factors that influence discussion of their cancer experiences. Results of multilevel modeling analysis indicated that higher levels of internalized shame were a prominent individual-level factor associated with a lack of discussion of cancer experiences. Relationship type and support type at the network-level were also significant correlates of discussion of cancer experiences. Programs for reducing the survivors' shame, improving illness identity, and providing professional training for building social relationships that are intimate, and in which they could exchange reciprocal support, may help Korean childhood cancer survivors to openly share their cancer experiences with others in their social network and to be successful in the journey of cancer survivorship.

Kim, M. A., Yi, J., Sang J., & Molloy, J. (2017). The Impact of a Child’s Cancer on the Father’s Relationship with His Spouse in Korea. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Accepted August 2017. Read More...

  • A father of a child with cancer experiences psychological stress related to his child's cancer diagnosis and treatment, which may affect his relationship with his spouse. The authors examined the impact of the child's cancer on the father's relationship with his spouse in Korea through in-depth interviews with 20 fathers of children who were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 19 and were within 5 years of the diagnosis. The analysis of the interviews revealed the following four themes (and eight subthemes): conflicts between spouses (lack of father's participation in caregiving, financial and work-related stress), mental suffering (heartbroken, torn between caregiving and work), change in communication (child-focused communication, avoiding communication), and change in the marital relationship (neglected relationship, new trust built in the relationship).

Kim, J. H., Yi, J., & Molly, J. Pediatric oncology social workers' experience of compassion fatigue​. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. Accepted August 21, 2017.

  • A qualitative study on compassion fatigue among pediatric oncology social workers.

Kim, M. A., Park, J. H., Park, H. J., Yi, J., Ahn, E., Kim, S. Y., Shin, D. W., Park, M., Lim, Y-J.,  Park, E. S., Park, K. D., & Hong, J. S.  Experiences in Peer Exclusion/Victimization, Cognitive Functioning, and Depression Among Adolescent Cancer Survivors in South Korea. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

  • Adolescents who reenter school after treatment for cancer may face certain challenges, such as social exclusion by their peers and difficulties in cognitive functioning, due to the cancer treatment and its psychosocial sequelae. Such challenges may have an impact on their mental health. This cross-sectional study examined the impact of peer exclusion–victimization and cognitive functioning on depression among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. In this sample of 175 adolescent survivors of childhood cancer in Korea, 49.7% experienced at least one kind of peer exclusion in school. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the effects of survivors’ experiences related to peer exclusion-victimization and cognitive functioning on depression, controlling for demographic and cancer-related characteristics. More experiences in peer exclusion-victimization and lower cognitive functioning were associated with greater levels of depression. Understanding the impact of survivors’ experiences of peer exclusion-victimization and cognitive functioning on their mental health will help professionals provide appropriate counseling services to moderate peer exclusion-victimization, as well as resources for academic performance for those cancer survivors at risk for depression.
Last Updated: 1/22/19